Measures for controlling microbial contamination in food factory processing
Adverse effects on a particular environment due to the production and attachment of microorganisms. If bacteria get the necessary nutrients, the right amount of water and the right temperature, they can reproduce quickly, and they can reproduce at an alarming rate. A typical bacterium can produce 281 trillion (million) bacteria in just two hours.
Implementing "microbiological management" in food factories is not to explore management methods for the immediate elimination of microorganisms, but to manage food that can be seen by the naked eye first. Microbes can not be directly observed with the naked eye. First, it is necessary to investigate the articles contaminated by microorganisms and consider from their own side.
The four major media of microbial pollution transmission
The four major media of microbial pollution are air, water, surface and human.
Air carries microbes to pollute food. There are at least 600,000 dust grains per cubic meter of air, and there are also a lot of microbes in the air.
Therefore, the effective way to eliminate air - contaminated food with a lot of dust particles and microbes is to filter and sterilize the air.
In theory, microbes cannot grow in pure water. However, in the process of production, water used in facilities and equipment cleaning will always contain a certain amount of soluble organic matter and salt. It is these soluble substances that can be used by microbes as a source of sustenance for their growth.
When water with a large amount of dust particles and microorganisms is used to produce or clean facilities and equipment, it is transferred to food and contaminated food.
Therefore, the water we use directly for food production must be treated to prevent microorganisms from contaminating products through water.
The surface of the
Due to the humidity in the air, all surfaces in the workshop (including ceilings, walls, floors, equipment, containers, tools or tables) are covered with a layer of water-containing film. The surface is contaminated by the return of dust particles and microbes from the air.
We should understand that a seemingly clean surface is actually contaminated by millions of microbes, unless properly sterilized.
People, including ourselves, are an endless medium of pollution. When we enter the food processing plant, we may bring millions of bacteria along with us.
2. How to carry out microbiological inspection
In the past, microbiological inspections in food plants were performed by quality managers on central samples of products.
However, the microbiological inspection of the final product alone cannot achieve the purpose of microbiological management. The inspection project needs to be expanded, and the production water, raw materials, workers and machinery should be inspected.
However, as the health management of the workshop, the quality manager only participates in the monitoring, and the real implementation is the staff's action participation.
Therefore, in order to promote microbial management, it is necessary for employees to have a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of microorganisms, so as to make their actions consciously conform to the "microbial management action".
Self-inspection tools. Although the standard inspection method stipulates the allowable amount of culture medium and bacteria used, it still needs a simple method and inspection tool of "self-inspection", and the use effect is good. The first and most important of the tested microbes was the coliform colony.
The existence of coliform colonies may simply be fecal contamination. This kind of bacteria is never allowed in food. There are simple inspection tools on the market for sale. The machine, tool, environment, finger and so on can also be checked with sterilized cotton. When conducting self-inspection, the judge of "no" and "no" should be made according to "yes" and "no".
His fingers, pipe, tools, all needs to check, for a day after the operation state of sterilization wash also should have a request, the adoption of the check and inspection of raw materials, intermediate products, packaging the same inspection tool, so can escape line more, easier to manage. These simple tools can be used to detect coliform bacteria, especially staphylococcus aureus or general bacteria.
2. Environmental microbiological examination
Another reason for microbial contamination in factories is the "environment". The inspection of environmental microorganism requires equipment and large funds according to the normal method.
However, any factory can check for microbes in the air.
The sources of microbes in the air include microbes in the air taken in from outside the factory and microbes produced inside the factory.
The number of phytoplankton in the air can be checked when the plate is opened for a certain time. This examination, like the examination of coliform colonies, can be performed by the operator himself.
Through self-inspection, we can not only know the inspection result, but also find out the cause and take measures to improve it.
Iii. How to conduct microbial health management
1. Carry out sorting and rectification
The factory environment is not clean and tidy, such as the piping, hose and container stacking site in the factory are not properly arranged, and the working place cannot be fully washed and sterilized, so it is difficult to ensure the hygienic requirements are met. Therefore, the factory should first carry out reorganization, reasonable layout and implement "microbial inhibition" to ensure the smooth development of microbial management.
2. Education for workers
One of the biggest sources of pollution in food factories is people. In the workshop, no matter how mechanized the degree of development, there are people everywhere. But it is harder for workers to gain access to health and safety knowledge. The best way is to carry out "self-inspection", in which workers absorb knowledge naturally through personal experience. "Self-inspection" of workers can not only improve the causes of pollution but also increase knowledge, and consciously develop microbiological management actions.
3. Establishment of SSOP management standards
Every factory has many different kinds of problems, and without a gradual solution, microbes cannot be suppressed. You have to find out why, and then you have to set standards for microbial inhibition, and you have to set goals for a period of time. With the improvement of the standard control index, the microbial management action was further implemented, and the microbial inhibition was also simple.
4. Use of fungicides
Before the use of fungicides, various sterilization methods should be carefully studied, including heating, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, etc., and the consequences of the use of fungicides should be considered. To select suitable bactericide, according to the usage of different sterilization object research fungicide, to prevent unnecessary fungicide with food, also want to consider the adverse effects of the wastewater treatment.
Source: food 580