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      微生物培養基按用途和功能的分類有哪些?

      發布時間:

      2022-12-24

      作者:

      培養基公司官網


      營養培養基——在基礎培養基中可加入葡萄糖,血液,生長因子等特殊成分,供營養要求較高的細菌和需要特殊生長因子的細菌生長。最常用的是血瓊脂平板,巧克力血平板等。
      鑒別培養基——利用細菌分解糖類和蛋白質的能力及其代謝產物的不同,在培養基中加入特定的作用底物和指示劑,觀察細菌生長過程中分解底物所釋放的不同產物,通過指示劑的反應不同來鑒別細菌。例如糖發酵管,克氏雙糖鐵瓊脂[KIA],伊紅-亞甲藍瓊脂和動力-吲哚-尿素[MIU]培養基等。
      基礎培養基——含有基礎生長所需的基本營養成分,最常用的是肉浸液,俗稱肉湯,主要成分含牛肉浸液和蛋白胨。基礎培養基廣泛用于細菌的增菌,檢驗,也是制備其他培養基的基礎成分。
      選擇培養基——在培養基中加入抑制劑,去抑制標本中的雜菌生長,有助于所選擇的細菌種類的生長醫學|教育網整理。例如培養腸道致病菌的SS瓊脂,其中的膽鹽能抑制革蘭陽性菌,枸櫞酸鈉和煌綠能抑制大腸埃希菌,因而使致病的沙門菌,志賀菌容易分離到。
      特殊培養基——包括厭氧培養基和細菌L型培養基等。前者是培養專性厭氧菌的培養基,除含營養成分外,還加入還原劑以降低培養基的氧化還原電勢,如皰肉培養基,巰基乙醇酸鈉培養基等。后者是針對細胞壁缺損的細菌L型,由于胞內滲透壓較高,故培養基必須采用高滲低瓊脂培養基。
      培養基圖片
       

      Microbial media are classified according to their uses and functions.
       
      Nutrition Medium - In the basic medium can be added to glucose, blood, growth factors and other special components for the growth of higher nutritional requirements of bacteria and bacteria need special growth factors. Blood agar plates, chocolate blood plates and so on are most commonly used.
      Differentiation Medium - Using the different ability of bacteria to decompose carbohydrates and proteins and their metabolites, adding specific substrates and indicators in the medium to observe the different products released by the decomposed substrates during the growth of bacteria, and identifying bacteria by different reactions of indicators. For example, sugar fermentation tube, KIA, Eosin-methylene blue agar and dynamic-indole-urea [MIU] medium.
      Basic Medium - contains the basic nutrients needed for basic growth, the most commonly used is meat extract, commonly known as broth, the main ingredients include beef extract and peptone. The basic medium is widely used for bacteria enrichment and testing, and is also the basic ingredient for other culture media.
      Selection of Medium - Inhibitors are added to the medium to inhibit the growth of the bacteria in the sample, which is helpful for the selection of bacterial species in growth medicine. For example, SS agar culture of enteropathogenic bacteria, in which bile salts can inhibit Gram-positive bacteria, sodium citrate and brilliant green can inhibit Escherichia coli, so that pathogenic Salmonella, Shigella easily isolated.
      Special medium including anaerobic medium and bacterial L type medium. The former is the medium for cultivating specific anaerobic bacteria. Besides nutrients, reductants are added to reduce the redox potential of the medium, such as bleb medium and sodium mercaptoglycolate medium. The latter is L-form bacteria with cell wall defect. Because of high intracellular osmotic pressure, high osmotic and low agar medium must be used.
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